Present Perfect Tense

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Present Perfect Tense
Present Perfect Tense

Definition of the present perfect tense:- The present perfect is used to indicate a link between the present and the past. The time of the action is before now but not specified, and we are often more interested in the result than in the action itself.

The present perfect tense is a tense used in present to indicate the action that has taken place at some specific time. It uses auxiliary verb and past participle for the main verb i.e. verb + ed. Some examples of present perfect tense are – I have watched this movie before, He has completed his homework. You will mostly use the present perfect in daily conversation while talking about some changes or experiences.

The present perfect tense is used to describe an action that

No.-1. Started in the past and ended in the past

No.-2. Started in the past and continues into the present time (but the future is indeterminate).

No.-3. It is formed with a variant of the verb to have + the present participle (verb form ending in -ed).

No.-4. The part that may confuse some readers is whether to use this present perfect verb tense (e.g. have walked) or to use the simple past (e.g. walked).

Forming the Present Perfect Tense

The present perfect of any verb is composed of two elements : the appropriate form of the auxiliary verb to have (present tense), plus the past participle of the main verb. The past participle of a regular verb is base+ed, e.g. played, arrived, looked. For irregular verbs, see the Table of irregular verbs in the section called ‘Verbs’.

Affirmative
Subject +to have +past participle
She has visited.
Negative
Subject +to have + not +past participle
She has not (hasn’t) visited.
Interrogative
to have +subject +past participle
Has she visited?
Negative interrogative
to have + not +subject +past participle
Hasn’t she visited?

 

To Walk, present perfect

Affirmative Negative Interrogative
I have walked I haven’t walked Have I walked?
You have walked You haven’t walked. Have you walked?
He, she, it has walked He, she, hasn’t walked Has he, she, it walked?
We have walked We haven’t walked Have we walked?
You have walked You haven’t walked Have you walked?
They have walked They haven’t walked Have they walked?

 

Examples of Present Perfect Tense

Unspecified Time Before Now के लिए Present Perfect Tense

We make use of the present perfect tense to say that an action took place at an unspecified time before now. Thus, the exact time is not of that much importance. Do NOT use the present perfect with particular time expressions like yesterday, two years ago, last month, when I was a kid, when I lived in Gujarat, at that moment, that day, one day, etc. You can use the present perfect with unspecific expressions like ever, once, several times, never, already, many times, so far, yet, and more.

Examples –

No.-1. We have seen that video ten times.

No.-2. I think I have met her once before.

No.-3. There have been many wildfires on Amazon.

No.-4. Astronauts have traveled to the Moon.

No.-5. They have not traveled to Jupiter.

No.-6. Have you read the thesis yet?

No.-7. Nobody has ever visited that haunted house.

Experience के लिए Present Perfect Tense

We can make use of the present perfect for describing our experience. For instance, ‘I have the experience of…’ Similarly, this tense can also be used to say that you have never had a particular experience. We do not use the present perfect for describing a particular event.

Examples –

No.-1. I have been to New York.

Through this statement, you are telling me that you have had the experience of visiting New York. It may be that you visited it once or multiple times.

No.-2. I have been to New York five times.

The number of times can be added at the end of the sentence.

No.-3. I have never been to New York.

Through this sentence, you will say that you have not had the experience of visiting New York.

No.-4. I think I have seen that video before.

She has never traveled by car.

Tina has studied four foreign languages.

Change Over Time के लिए Present Perfect Tense

Present perfect is also used to denote the change that has occurred over a certain period of time.

Examples –

No.-1. You have grown since the last time I saw you.

No.-2. The school has become more interested in extra-curricular activities.

No.-3. French has become one of the most popular courses at the school since the Foreign Language program was established.

No.-4. My Telugu has significantly improved since I moved to Telangana.

Achievements के लिए Present Perfect Tense

The use of the present perfect is also done to list the achievements of people and humanity. But, you cannot mention a particular time.

Examples –

No.-1. Man has walked on the Moon.

No.-2. Scientists have split the atom.

No.-3. Our daughter has learned how to dance.

No.-4. Doctors have cured many deadly diseases.

Uncompleted Action You are Expecting  के लिए Present Perfect Tense

We use the present perfect to tell about an action which we are expecting but has not happened yet. Using the present perfect will suggest that you are still waiting for the action to occur.

Examples –

No.-1. Rahul has not completed his project yet.

No.-2. Priya hasn’t mastered Bengali, but she can communicate.

No.-3. Pete has still not reached.

No.-4. The rain hasn’t stopped.

Multiple Actions at Different Times के लिए Present Perfect Tense

The present perfect tense is also used to talk about multiple different actions that have happened in the past at different times. It suggests the process is not complete and there is a possibility of more actions.

Examples –

No.-1. The army has attacked the neighboring country two times.

No.-2. We have had two competitions and five events so far this year.

No.-3. I have had a lot of problems while teaching junior classes.

No.-4. He has talked to multiple doctors about her problem, but nobody can figure out the reason for her illness.

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